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Health and Fitness

Health and Fitness information for long distance backpackers. Physical and psychological effects of hiking and nature.

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New Tick Safety Strategies Required for Euro Lyme


New Tick Safety Strategies Required for Euro Lyme

Lyme disease: A study on the speed of transmission by infected ticks,
Institut Pasteur, September 21, 2018.


"...evidence of rapid bacterial transmission following a bite, with infection occurring within 24 hours of an adult tick bite and sometimes even sooner for nymph bites. This is a timely reminder of the importance of removing ticks as soon as possible after being bitten to prevent infection."

"Ticks have three lifecycle stages that can bite humans – larva, nymph and adult –, but bacteria are usually transmitted through bites from nymphs, which are higher in density and often go unnoticed because of their small size."

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Cheesy Archeology: Two Blocks of Research, Who’s Got the Oldest Cheese?


Cheesy Archeology: Two Blocks of Research

Who’s Got the Oldest Cheese?

1> Earliest Bad Cheese Found, 3300 Years Old

2> Evidence of 7,200-year-old Cheese





1> Earliest Bad Cheese Found, 3300 Years Old

Earliest 3,300 Year Old Block of Cheese Contaminated with Earliest Brucellosis

World's oldest cheese found in Egyptian tomb,
American Chemical Society, August 15, 2018.

"...thought to be the most ancient solid cheese ever found..."

"The tomb of Ptahmes, mayor of Memphis in Egypt during the 13th century BC, was initially unearthed in 1885. After being lost under drifting sands, it was rediscovered in 2010, and archeologists found broken jars at the site a few years later. One jar contained a solidified whitish mass, as well as canvas fabric that might have covered the jar or been used to preserve its contents."

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The Two Sides of the Motivation & Survival Coin


Two Sides of the Coin: Motivation Vs. Laziness in the Pursuit of Survival

Why the brain struggles to get off the sofa,
Université de Genève, September 18, 2018.


“About 30% of adults and 80% of teenagers today do not meet the minimum levels of daily physical activity for staying healthy...”

“Previous studies have already demonstrated that there is a gap between the intention to play sport and actually playing it among individuals with a leaning towards a sedentary lifestyle.”

“...what happens in the brain to prevent intention being followed by action?”

“...studied the neuronal activity of people faced with making the choice between physical activity and doing nothing.”

“...studied the neuronal activity of 29 people, all of whom wanted to be active in their daily lives without necessarily being so.”

“They noted that the brain requires far greater resources to escape a general attraction to minimising effort. A struggle then breaks out between the desire to do nothing and the physical activity.”

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Aspirin Use Without Specific Medical Need Questioned


Aspirin Use Without Specific Medical Need Questioned

Aspirin found not to prolong healthy aging,
Rush University Medical Center, September 17, 2018.


Aspirin has NO Benefit
"The large clinical trial, which began in 2010, aimed to determine the risks and benefits of daily low-dose aspirin in healthy older adults without previous cardiovascular events, dementia or physical disability, and who were free of medical conditions requiring aspirin use. The results showed that aspirin did not extend healthy independent living (life free of dementia or persistent physical disability)."

No Reason? No Aspirin

“The results will have a significant impact on guidelines about aspirin use for prevention and in daily clinical conversations between clinicians and their older, healthy patients regarding whether aspirin should or should not be used for achieving disability-free longevity."

"This study shows why it is so important to conduct this type of research, so that we can gain a fuller picture of aspirin’s benefits and risks among healthy older persons.”

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13,000 Year Old Beer Production, before Agriculture


13,000 Year Old Beer Production

Oldest Beer on Earth, before Agriculture

A prehistoric thirst for craft beer,
Elsevier, September 12, 2018.

“...archeologists analyzed three stone mortars from a 13,000-year old Natufian burial cave site in Israel. Their analysis confirmed that these mortars were used for brewing of wheat/barley, as well as for food storage.”

"Alcohol making and food storage were among the major technological innovations that eventually led to the development of civilizations in the world...”

"We exposed a Natufian burial area with about 30 individuals; a wealth of small finds such as flint tools, animal bones and ground stone implements, and about 100 stone mortars and cupmarks.“

“They used bedrock mortars for pounding and cooking plant-foods, and for brewing wheat/barley-based beer, likely served in ritual feasts 13,000 years ago.”

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Amazing Macrophage Porn Videos


Amazing Micro Video Images of Amazing Celluar Life
University of Queensland Macrophage Porn Video
Macrophage Porn Credit U of Q

Powerful images reveal how immune cells patrol to keep us healthy,
University of Queensland, August 28, 2018.


"...exquisite, real-time detail how immune cells survey their surroundings to detect threats to our health. The imaging also provides insights into how aggressive cancer cells sustain their growth."

"...discovered new structures they termed ‘tent-pole ruffles’ on the surface of immune cells called macrophages; the ruffles help the cells gulp the surrounding fluid for sampling."

"...Macrophages (Greek for 'big eaters') are a type of white blood cell, whose job it is to detect and engulf any material that may be a potential danger..."

"They survey all tissues of the body by taking in large gulps of surrounding fluid to identify anything they don't recognise as healthy, triggering immune responses when necessary to ward off infection."

"...a cutting-edge laser microscope called a lattice light sheet, which captures huge 3D images with great precision..."

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Rise and Fall of Diet Mythologies: Dairy not as Bad as Thought


Rise and Fall of Diet Mythologies

Dairy not as Bad as Thought

Current advice to limit dairy intake should be reconsidered,
European Society of Cardiology, August 28, 2018.


"...consumption of dairy products has long been thought to increase the risk of death, particularly from coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, and cancer, because of dairy's relatively high levels of saturated fat. Yet evidence for any such link, especially among US adults, is inconsistent. With the exception of milk, which appears to increase the risk of CHD, dairy products have been found to protect against both total mortality and mortality from cerebrovascular causes."

Good News for Dairy
"...dairy products have been found to protect against both total mortality and mortality from cerebrovascular causes, according to research presented today..."

"A meta-analysis of 29 cohort studies published in 2017 found no association between the consumption of dairy products and either cardiovascular disease (CVD) or all-cause mortality."

Bad News for Milk
"Yet a large 20-year prospective study of Swedish adults...found that higher consumption of milk was associated with a doubling of mortality risk, including from CVD, in the cohort of women."

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Clay Wound Treatment in the Age of Antibiotic Resistance


Clay Wound Treatment in the Age of Antibiotic Resistance

Clay to Fight Bacteria in Wounds: An old practice may be a new solution,
Mayo Clinic, August 21, 2018.


“...the concept of using mud as medicine goes back to earliest times.”
Blue Clay from Oregon
Image Courtesy Arizona State University


Blue Clay from Oregon
“...found that at least one type of clay may help fight disease-causing bacteria in wounds, including some treatment-resistant bacteria.”

Biofilm Effective
“We showed that this reduced iron-bearing clay can kill some strains of bacteria under the laboratory conditions used, including bacteria grown as biofilms, which can be particularly challenging to treat”

“Biofilms occur when bacteria attach to surfaces and develop a film or protective coating making them relatively resistant to antibiotics. They appear in two-thirds of the infections seen by physicians.”

Alex Wierbinski's picture

HEALTH & FITNESS: Salt is not Bad for You


Salt is Not Bad for You

Pass the salt: Study finds average consumption safe for heart health,
McMaster University, August 9, 2018.


"New research shows that for the vast majority of individuals, sodium consumption does not increase health risks except for those who eat more than five grams a day, the equivalent of 2.5 teaspoons of salt."

"Any health risk of sodium intake is virtually eliminated if people improve their diet quality by adding fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, potatoes, and other potassium rich foods."

Big Study
"...followed 94,000 people, aged 35 to 70, for an average of eight years in communities from 18 countries around the world and found there an associated risk of cardiovascular disease and strokes only where the average intake is greater than five grams of sodium a day."

Only China
"China is the only country in their study where 80 per cent of communities have a sodium intake of more than five grams a day."

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CLIMATE WARMING NEWS: Heat Dangers Rising, Will Drive Thousands to ER


Heat Dangers Rising, Many Will Suffer

New study predicts warming climate will drive thousands to ER for heat illness,
AGU Blog, August 7, 2018


Expensive Dangers Ahead
"...a new study predicts that in the coming decades the United States’ heat problem will grow more dangerous and expensive."

Today's Emission Trajectory
"...suggests a warming climate will drive thousands more people into emergency rooms across the country and could cost tens of millions more dollars in treatment by 2050."

Reduced Emission Trajectory
"...U.S. emergency rooms could see 28,000 more hyperthermia visits annually by 2050, which could cost roughly as much as $52 million. Extended to 2090, the annual number of visits for hyperthermia could increase by up to 65,000, costing up to $118 million."

Health Threats of Warming Temps
 How our warming climate affects health.
"This table lists the various causes and ways in which climate change affects human health." Chart credit: U.S. Global Change Research Program.

Alex Wierbinski's picture

Antibiotic Resistance Can Spread Through The Air


Flying Bacterial Resistance Squads

Antibiotic Resistance Can Spread Through The Air, Scientists Warn, And Yes You Should Be Terrified,
Science Alert, July 26, 2018.

"...antibiotic resistance genes are spreading through the air."

"...because once they die they release their entire insides into their environment – leaving little DNA packages around for other bacteria that happen to pass by."

“The bad news: they're everywhere.”

“Between 2016 and 2017, the team surveyed 30 different types of airborne antibiotic resistance genes across 19 cities around the world, including San Francisco, Paris and Melbourne.”

“...San Francisco had the highest level overall.”


Recent Antibiotic Resistance Research

Health News: Plasmid Sharing Party, Spreading Bacterial Resistance Defeating Antibiotics


Alex Wierbinski's picture

2018 Tick Alert, FYI: Tick Infections Rising


Tick Alert, FYI: Tick Infections Rising

Public Health & Mountain Safety Information

Tickborne diseases are likely to increase, say NIAID officials,
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, July 25, 2018.

We don't get many ticks up along the Sierra Crest & its high flanks, though I have rarely encountered ticks at elevation, likely shed by migrating deer. Temperate zones down the Western Flank of the Sierra, and the temperate Doug Fir Forests along Coastal Range, are full of ticks.



"The incidence of tickborne infections in the United States has risen significantly within the past decade."


"...are likely many factors contributing to increased Lyme disease incidence in the U.S., greater tick densities and their expanding geographical range have played a key role."


"...Lyme disease representing the majority (82 percent) of reported cases."

"...10 to 20 percent of patients report lingering symptoms after effective antimicrobial therapy."


Alex Wierbinski's picture

Teflon in Everything: Dangerous PFAS Systamatically and Intentionally Ignored



Health & Fittness

Teflon in Everything

Dangerous PFAS Systamatically and Intentionally Ignored

How the EPA and the Pentagon Downplayed a Growing Toxic Threat,
ProPublica, July 9, 2018.


Scope & Scale
This article tracks the status and movement of major contamination sites centered on military facilities. For information about how, "it is present worldwide at very low levels in just about everyone’s blood," about how everyone became contaminated with PFAS through the ubiquitious use of teflon cookware, see "More Info" below.



The Real Deal
Unknown Contamination Downplayed

"...long been known that, in certain concentrations, the compounds could be dangerous if they got into water or if people breathed dust or ate food that contained them. Tests showed they accumulated in the blood of chemical factory workers and residents living nearby, and studies linked some of the chemicals to cancers and birth defects."

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July, 2018: A New Member of Bacterial Family Causing Lyme Disease




A New Member of Bacterial Family Causing Lyme Disease

Borrelia Mayonii

A new bacterium that causes Lyme Disease,
AGU, July 4, 2018.

Alex Wierbinski's picture

Female Running Shoe Test: Maximal Running Shoes Vs. Neutral Shoes



Female Running Shoe Test

Maximal Running Shoes Vs. Neutral Shoes

Maximal running shoes may increase injury risk to some runners,
Oregon State University, June 25, 2018.



"...compared the biomechanics associated with "maximal" and "neutral" running shoes in tests with 15 female runners."

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HEALTH & FITNESS NEWS: BPA Affects Communications for Generations




BPA Affects "Communications" for Generations

BPA can induce multigenerational effects on ability to communicate,
University of Missouri-Columbia, June 18, 2018.

" long-term effects of BPA exposure in grandmothers and grandfathers might affect offspring communication ability."

Alex Wierbinski's picture

HEALTH & FITTNESS, Medicinal Nutrition, Foods that Fight Disease



Foods that Fight Disease

Scientists identify foods that fight disease,
Nutrition 2018, June 10, 2018.


The Foods

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Two Works of Research: Bacteria Moving Effectively to Counter Human Antibiotics



Microscopic Bacterial Magic

Bacteria Moving Effectively to Counter Human Antibiotics

DNA HUNTERS: Spearing and Plasmid Sharing



Scientists watch bacteria 'harpoon' DNA to speed their evolution,
Indiana University, June 11, 2018.


Mini Big Game Hunters

"...researchers recorded the first images of bacterial appendages -- over 10,000 times thinner than human hair -- as they stretched out to catch DNA. These DNA fragments can then be incorporated into bacteria's own genome through a process called DNA uptake or 'horizontal gene transfer.' "

"The bacterial structures used to catch DNA in the environment are extremely thin, hair-like appendages called pili."


Alex Wierbinski's picture

Forty Years of Stonewalling and Political Bribes: Styrene is Probably Carcinogenic



Forty Years of Stonewalling and Political Bribes...

Styrene is probably carcinogenic

After 40 years in limbo: Styrene is probably carcinogenic,
Aarhus University, May 30, 2018.

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